Source: LIPASTO -emission calculation system, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
LIPASTO main page Passenger road traffic
Coach
Gross vehicle mass 18t, carrying capacity 5t, number of seats 50
Highway driving
 
  Emissions per passenger kilometre   Emissions per vehicle kilometre
  CO [g/pkm] CO  [g/km]
Emission standard 12 passengers full loaded (50 pass.) Empty 12 passengers full loaded (50 pass.)
--> 1993 0,11 0,027 1,3 1,3 1,4
EURO 1 (1994 - 1996) 0,094 0,024 1,1 1,1 1,2
EURO 2 (1997 - 2000) 0,058 0,014 0,70 0,70 0,70
EURO 3 (2001 - 2006) 0,047 0,013 0,55 0,57 0,63
EURO 4 (2007 - 2008) 0,0033 0,00054 0,043 0,039 0,027
EURO 5 (2009 --> ) 0,0031 0,00054 0,040 0,037 0,027
EURO 6          
Average, year 2011 0,044 0,011 0,52 0,53 0,56
 
  HC [g/pkm]   HC  [g/km]
Emission standard 12 passengers full loaded (50 pass.) Empty 12 passengers full loaded (50 pass.)
--> 1993 0,064 0,015 0,78 0,77 0,74
EURO 1 (1994 - 1996) 0,045 0,010 0,55 0,54 0,52
EURO 2 (1997 - 2000) 0,032 0,0074 0,39 0,39 0,37
EURO 3 (2001 - 2006) 0,0062 0,0016 0,073 0,075 0,080
EURO 4 (2007 - 2008) 0,0011 0,00040 0,011 0,013 0,020
EURO 5 (2009 --> ) 0,0011 0,00040 0,011 0,013 0,020
EURO 6          
Average, year 2011 0,017 0,0041 0,21 0,21 0,20
 
  NOx [g/pkm]   NOx  [g/km]
Emission standard 12 passengers full loaded (50 pass.) Empty 12 passengers full loaded (50 pass.)
--> 1993 0,85 0,24 9,7 10 12
EURO 1 (1994 - 1996) 0,60 0,17 6,8 7,2 8,3
EURO 2 (1997 - 2000) 0,51 0,14 5,8 6,1 7,1
EURO 3 (2001 - 2006) 0,31 0,080 3,6 3,7 4,0
EURO 4 (2007 - 2008) 0,19 0,048 2,3 2,3 2,4
EURO 5 (2009 --> ) 0,11 0,028 1,3 1,3 1,4
EURO 6          
Average, year 2011 0,36 0,10 4,2 4,3 4,9
 
  PM [g/pkm]   PM  [g/km]
Emission standard 12 passengers full loaded (50 pass.) Empty 12 passengers full loaded (50 pass.)
--> 1993 0,030 0,0073 0,36 0,36 0,37
EURO 1 (1994 - 1996) 0,020 0,0048 0,23 0,24 0,24
EURO 2 (1997 - 2000) 0,0088 0,0021 0,11 0,11 0,11
EURO 3 (2001 - 2006) 0,0049 0,0013 0,057 0,059 0,064
EURO 4 (2007 - 2008) 0,0030 0,00084 0,035 0,037 0,042
EURO 5 (2009 --> ) 0,0030 0,00084 0,035 0,037 0,042
EURO 6          
Average, year 2011 0,008 0,0021 0,10 0,10 0,10
 
  CH4 [g/pkm]   CH4  [g/km]
Emission standard 12 passengers full loaded (50 pass.) Empty 12 passengers full loaded (50 pass.)
--> 1993 0,0021 0,00050 0,025 0,025 0,025
EURO 1 (1994 - 1996) 0,0015 0,00035 0,018 0,018 0,017
EURO 2 (1997 - 2000) 0,0011 0,00025 0,013 0,013 0,012
EURO 3 (2001 - 2006) 0,00084 0,00020 0,010 0,010 0,010
EURO 4 (2007 - 2008) 0,00084 0,00020 0,010 0,010 0,010
EURO 5 (2009 --> ) 0,00084 0,00020 0,010 0,010 0,010
EURO 6          
Average, year 2011 0,0010 0,00024 0,012 0,012 0,012
 
  N2O [g/pkm]   N2O  [g/km]
Emission standard 12 passengers full loaded (50 pass.) Empty 12 passengers full loaded (50 pass.)
--> 1993 0,0025 0,00060 0,030 0,030 0,030
EURO 1 (1994 - 1996) 0,0025 0,00060 0,030 0,030 0,030
EURO 2 (1997 - 2000) 0,0025 0,00060 0,030 0,030 0,030
EURO 3 (2001 - 2006) 0,0025 0,00060 0,030 0,030 0,030
EURO 4 (2007 - 2008) 0,0025 0,00060 0,030 0,030 0,030
EURO 5 (2009 --> ) 0,0025 0,00060 0,030 0,030 0,030
EURO 6          
Average, year 2011 0,0025 0,00060 0,030 0,030 0,030
 
  NH3 [g/pkm]   NH3 [g/km]
Emission standard 12 passengers full loaded (50 pass.) Empty 12 passengers full loaded (50 pass.)
--> 1993 0,00042 0,00010 0,0050 0,0050 0,0050
EURO 1 (1994 - 1996) 0,00042 0,00010 0,0050 0,0050 0,0050
EURO 2 (1997 - 2000) 0,00042 0,00010 0,0050 0,0050 0,0050
EURO 3 (2001 - 2006) 0,00042 0,00010 0,0050 0,0050 0,0050
EURO 4 (2007 - 2008) 0,00042 0,00010 0,0050 0,0050 0,0050
EURO 5 (2009 --> ) 0,00042 0,00010 0,0050 0,0050 0,0050
EURO 6          
Average, year 2011 0,00042 0,00010 0,0050 0,0050 0,0050
 
  SO2 [g/pkm]   SO2  [g/km]
Emission standard 12 passengers full loaded (50 pass.) Empty 12 passengers full loaded (50 pass.)
--> 1993 0,00031 0,000081 0,0037 0,0037 0,0041
EURO 1 (1994 - 1996) 0,00032 0,000082 0,0037 0,0038 0,0041
EURO 2 (1997 - 2000) 0,00032 0,000084 0,0038 0,0039 0,0042
EURO 3 (2001 - 2006) 0,00033 0,000086 0,0039 0,0040 0,0043
EURO 4 (2007 - 2008) 0,00034 0,000088 0,0039 0,0040 0,0044
EURO 5 (2009 --> ) 0,00034 0,000088 0,0039 0,0040 0,0044
EURO 6          
Average, year 2011 0,00033 0,000085 0,0038 0,0039 0,0043
 
  CO2 [g/pkm]   CO2  [g/km]
Emission standard 12 passengers full loaded (50 pass.) Empty 12 passengers full loaded (50 pass.)
--> 1993 46 12 539 553 597
EURO 1 (1994 - 1996) 47 12 547 562 607
EURO 2 (1997 - 2000) 48 12 556 571 617
EURO 3 (2001 - 2006) 49 13 571 586 633
EURO 4 (2007 - 2008) 49 13 575 593 649
EURO 5 (2009 --> ) 49 13 575 593 649
EURO 6          
Average, year 2011 48 13 565 581 630
 
  CO2 eq. [g/pkm]   CO2 eq. [g/km]
Emission standard 12 passengers full loaded (50 pass.) Empty 12 passengers full loaded (50 pass.)
--> 1993 47 12 549 563 607
EURO 1 (1994 - 1996) 48 12 557 571 617
EURO 2 (1997 - 2000) 48 13 566 580 627
EURO 3 (2001 - 2006) 50 13 580 595 643
EURO 4 (2007 - 2008) 50 13 584 602 658
EURO 5 (2009 --> ) 50 13 584 602 658
EURO 6          
Average, year 2011 49 13 574 590 640
 
  Fuel consumption [g/pkm]   Fuel consumption [g/km]
Emission standard 12 passengers full loaded (50 pass.) Empty 12 passengers full loaded (50 pass.)
--> 1993 16 4,1 183 187 203
EURO 1 (1994 - 1996) 16 4,1 186 191 206
EURO 2 (1997 - 2000) 16 4,2 189 194 209
EURO 3 (2001 - 2006) 17 4,3 194 199 215
EURO 4 (2007 - 2008) 17 4,4 195 201 220
EURO 5 (2009 --> ) 17 4,4 195 201 220
EURO 6          
Average, year 2011 16 4,3 192 197 214
 
      Fuel consumption [l/100km]
Emission standard Empty 12 passengers full loaded (50 pass.)
--> 1993 21,6 22,2 24,0
EURO 1 (1994 - 1996) 22,0 22,5 24,4
EURO 2 (1997 - 2000) 22,3 22,9 24,8
EURO 3 (2001 - 2006) 22,9 23,5 25,4
EURO 4 (2007 - 2008) 23,1 23,8 26,0
EURO 5 (2009 --> ) 23,1 23,8 26,0
EURO 6      
Average, year 2011 22,7 23,3 25,3
 
  Energy consumption [MJ/pkm]   Energy consumption [MJ/km]
Emission standard 12 passengers full loaded (50 pass.) Empty 12 passengers full loaded (50 pass.)
--> 1993 0,67 0,17 7,9 8,1 8,7
EURO 1 (1994 - 1996) 0,68 0,18 8,0 8,2 8,9
EURO 2 (1997 - 2000) 0,69 0,18 8,1 8,3 9,0
EURO 3 (2001 - 2006) 0,71 0,18 8,3 8,5 9,2
EURO 4 (2007 - 2008) 0,72 0,19 8,4 8,6 9,5
EURO 5 (2009 --> ) 0,72 0,19 8,4 8,6 9,5
EURO 6          
Average, year 2011 0,71 0,18 8,2 8,5 9,2
 
  Energy consumption [kWh/pkm]   Energy consumption [kWh/km]
Emission standard 12 passengers full loaded (50 pass.) Empty 12 passengers full loaded (50 pass.)
--> 1993 0,19 0,048 2,2 2,2 2,4
EURO 1 (1994 - 1996) 0,19 0,049 2,2 2,3 2,5
EURO 2 (1997 - 2000) 0,19 0,050 2,3 2,3 2,5
EURO 3 (2001 - 2006) 0,20 0,051 2,3 2,4 2,6
EURO 4 (2007 - 2008) 0,20 0,053 2,3 2,4 2,6
EURO 5 (2009 --> ) 0,20 0,053 2,3 2,4 2,6
EURO 6          
Average, year 2011 0,20 0,051 2,3 2,4 2,6
 
Mileage share  [%]  
--> 1993 8,1     --> 1993  = year model 1993 and older
EURO 1 (1994 - 1996) 7,6 EURO 1 = year models 1994 - 1996
EURO 2 (1997 - 2000) 19,5 EURO 2 = year models 1997 - 2000
EURO 3 (2001 - 2006) 33,1 EURO 3 = year models 2001 - 2006
EURO 4 (2007 - 2008) 14,0 EURO 4 = year models 2007 - 2008
EURO 5 (2009 --> ) 17,7 EURO 5 = year model 2009 and later
EURO 6 0,0 EURO 6     
Total, year 2011 100,0  
CO = Carbon monoxide, HC = Total Hydrocarbons (including Methane CH4), NOx = Nitrogen oxides, PM = Total Particulate matter, CH4 = Methane, N2O = Nitrous oxides, NH3 = Ammonium, SO2 = Sulphur dioxide, CO2 = Carbon dioxide, CO2eq. = greenhouse gases in CO2 equivalents (CH4 factor 21 and N2O factor 310), MJ = Megajoule, kWh = Kilowatthour
Bio-share in both gasoline and diesel was 6% of the caloric value in 2011
7.8.2012 Additional information on the adjacent link Bio share
Last updated
by Kari Mäkelä, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
email: firstname.lastname@vtt.fi